Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that „the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.“ and acknowledges that „much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the increase in the global average temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.“ [25] [Clarification needed] The objective of the agreement is to reduce the climate change under Article 2 in order to reduce the implementation of the UNFCCC by :[11] Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, San Marino and Uzbekistan, increased the number of ratifications of the Paris Convention to 184. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making „efforts“ to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. In the end, all parties recognized the need to „prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,“ but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded. [11] The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses. [56] Although the enhanced transparency framework is universal, the framework, coupled with the global inventory that takes place every five years, aims to provide „integrated flexibility“ to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework. [58] The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report. [58] The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework. [58] From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the UN Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding and universal agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2oC above the lower temperature levels set before the start of the industrial revolution. It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it.

In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some main reasons why the agreement is so important: the Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are „top down“, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and which must be implemented by states. [32] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives. [33] Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding.

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